Aims of the EYFS Curriculum
To develop an understanding of conversational skills required to communicate in clear and effective manner.
To build and then develop effective relationships.
To assume greater personal responsibility.
To begin to understand the importance of managing personal safety, including online.
Aims of the KS1 Curriculum
To hold an effective conversation drawing upon knowledge learned.
To continue to build on and develop effective relationships and understand what is not a healthy relationship.
To assume greater personal responsibility – understanding that this is not just physically, but in an online capacity to.
To continue to develop the understanding of the importance of managing personal safety, including online.
To increase own independence in problem solving and seeking support.
To develop a social awareness of themselves and others.
Aims of the Lower KS2 Curriculum
To speak confidently and effectively.
To consolidate understanding of effective relationships and those relationships that are unhealthy and potentially could be damaging.
To understand the impact of personal responsibility both physical and online.
To understand the importance of managing personal safety, including online.
To further understand how they contribute to the wider world and begin to understand ways in which they are able to make an active contribution to their curriculum.
To begin to manage the physical and emotional changes in their bodies during the onset of puberty.
Aims of the Upper KS2 Curriculum
Having being taught following the PHSE curriculum from Nursery through to Year 6 children should leave primary school knowing the following. These skills will have been taught and embedded throughout the children’s journey through the school right from the word go in some cases. Other topics will come into their own further through a child’s education where appropriate.
Pupils should know
• that mental wellbeing is a normal part of daily life, in the same way as physical health.
• that there is a normal range of emotions (e.g. happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, nervousness) and scale of emotions that all humans experience in relation to different experiences and situations.
• how to recognise and talk about their emotions, including having a varied vocabulary of words to use when talking about their own and others’ feelings.
• how to judge whether what they are feeling and how they are behaving is appropriate and proportionate.
• the benefits of physical exercise, time outdoors, community participation, voluntary and service-based activity on mental wellbeing and happiness.
• simple self-care techniques, including the importance of rest, time spent with friends and family and the benefits of hobbies and interests.
• isolation and loneliness can affect children and that it is very important for children to discuss their feelings with an adult and seek support.
• that bullying (including cyberbullying) has a negative and often lasting impact on mental wellbeing.
• where and how to seek support (including recognising the triggers for seeking support), including whom in school they should speak to if they are worried about their own or someone else’s mental wellbeing or ability to control their emotions (including issues arising online).
• it is common for people to experience mental ill health. For many people who do, the problems can be resolved if the right
Internet safety and harms
Pupils should know
• that for most people the internet is an integral part of life and has many benefits.
• about the benefits of rationing time spent online, the risks of excessive time spent on electronic devices and the impact of positive and negative content online on their own and others’ mental and physical wellbeing.
• how to consider the effect of their online actions on others and know how to recognise and display respectful behaviour online and the importance of keeping personal information private.
• why social media, some computer games and online gaming, for example, are age restricted.
• that the internet can also be a negative place where online abuse, trolling, bullying and harassment can take place, which can have a negative impact on mental health.
• how to be a discerning consumer of information online including understanding that information, including that from search engines, is ranked, selected and targeted.
• where and how to report concerns and get support with issues online.
Physical health and fitness
Pupils should know
• the characteristics and mental and physical benefits of an active lifestyle.
• the importance of building regular exercise into daily and weekly routines and how to achieve this; for example walking or cycling to school, a daily active mile or other forms of regular, vigorous exercise.
• the risks associated with an inactive lifestyle (including obesity).
• how and when to seek support including which adults to speak to in school if they are worried about their health.
Pupils should know
• what constitutes a healthy diet (including understanding calories and other nutritional content).
• the principles of planning and preparing a range of healthy meals.
• the characteristics of a poor diet and risks associated with unhealthy eating (including, for example, obesity and tooth decay) and other behaviours (e.g. the impact of alcohol on diet or health).
Drugs, alcohol and tobacco
Pupils should know
• the facts about legal and illegal harmful substances and associated risks, including smoking, alcohol use and drug-taking.
Health and Prevention
Pupils should know
• how to recognise early signs of physical illness, such as weight loss, or unexplained changes to the body.
• about safe and unsafe exposure to the sun, and how to reduce the risk of sun damage, including skin cancer.
• the importance of sufficient good quality sleep for good health and that a lack of sleep can affect weight, mood and ability to learn.
• about dental health and the benefits of good oral hygiene and dental flossing, including regular check-ups at the dentist.
• about personal hygiene and germs including bacteria, viruses, how they are spread and treated, and the importance of handwashing.
• the facts and science relating to allergies, immunisation and vaccination.
Basic First Aid
Pupils should know:
• how to make a clear and efficient call to emergency services if necessary.
• concepts of basic first-aid, for example dealing with common injuries, including head injuries.
Changing adolescent body
Pupils should know:
• key facts about puberty and the changing adolescent body, particularly from age 9 through to age 11, including physical and emotional changes.
• about menstrual wellbeing including the key facts about the menstrual cycle.
SCARF supports and contributes carefully to the EYFS framework, the development of children towards Early Learning Goals, the Characteristics of Effective Learning and the statements that are a part of Development Matters. The main focus is based around Personal, Social, Emotional Develop and Communication and Language. As children transition to Key Stage One, those who have achieved the Early Learning Goals will be well placed to continue to access the curriculum at the appropriate level. Those who are behind expectations will need support to allow them to continue to develop through the scheme. SCARF forms a part of spiral curriculum that provides the essential building blocks to allow children to move from EYFS to KS1 whilst continuing to make progress.
As children move from KS1 to LKS2 the curriculum allows for the introduction of new skills whilst embedding skills that have previously been taught. As mentioned before the spiral curriculum allows children to revisit taught skills and concepts and to develop further within new strands.
Moving from LKS1 to UKS1 is where children begin to further explore concepts such as puberty and reproduction. These concepts are linked to Science units that children cover. However the 6 strands that have been covered throughout the half terms are still pivotal to the teaching of PHSE and still feature heavily.
Children who have been exposed to teaching of SCARF throughout primary school will begin KS3 with the knowledge and understanding, skills, attributes and values they have acquired and developed during their time in primary school. The PHSE curriculum aims to ensure that as children transition from one setting to another and learn to manage the changes in their bodies they are supported. Within KS3 children will go onto identify how to manage diverse relationships, their online lives and ways to manage the increasing influence of peers and the media.
Speaking and listening skills feature heavily in all PHSE lessons, children will need to be able to communicate/respond to discussions and points. Children with typical language development skills should be expanding on their language development through the key aspects of the PHSE, acquiring new vocabulary and being exposed to high quality interactions from adults. Where children are non-verbal or have significant language barriers planning and delivery will be expected to look very different for those children.
The curriculum designed by SCARF is conducive to a spiral curriculum where this is appropriate. Starting from Nursery, these skills are then built on each year to the end of Year 6. Children are exposed to the same 6 strands and the lessons within these strands develop throughout the year. There are points within the curriculum where new themes are introduced for example the onset of puberty is not covered in EYFS and KS1 as this is not appropriate.
We are currently following the sequence laid out by SCARF as they have focused on ensuring that the skills taught build carefully upon each other allowing children to develop necessary skills with adequate practise.
SCARF’s curriculum is broken down into 6 strands which run across all year groups. By following this as a school we are having a specific focus each half term on the same strand.
The PHSE curriculum like all may need to be differentiated for groups of children. The succinct summative assessment is mapped out in a way that allows teachers to identify what is expected for the year group and what the majority of pupils should be achieving. However it also outlines clearly what ‘exceeding’ in that particular unit would look like. Allowing teachers to identify where children who are expected securely should be moving to next. It is important to ensure that all children are exposed to the intended outcomes and then to monitor and identify their progress once the input has been given. Children who are less confident within the unit and who are finding it difficult to progress to ‘expected’ would be categorised as emerging. Children with specific learning needs and potentially EHCP children may need a revised activity to allow them to succeed where relevant to their individual development, this is something that would need careful planning.
The development of social skills is a main focus through the whole of PHSE curriculum.
Oracy is a high level of focus, as many PHSE lessons focus on communication, speaking and listening and building up on points made by adults and peers alike. Children need high quality modelling to ensure they develop these skills.
Clear, concise links to the Science curriculum, with regards to reproduction, naming body parts including external genitals, the onset of puberty.
Specific focus on English cross curricular – embedding of skills and development.
Links to Computing curriculum, specifically online safety and harm.
Links to Mathematics – the introduction of money and budgeting.
Links to Physical Education – the premise of healthy eating, exercising, and keeping fit.
Link to Geography – looking after our environment.
Link to Art – through specific planned activities.
Curriculum Assessment and Intervention
PHSE is continually assessed through high quality and meaningful interactions. At the beginning of each new unit children should undertake a simple activity (see below) to allow the teacher to identify a starting point, this is particularly important as some of these key themes may have not been covered for some time or even at all in some cases.
SCARF (scheme used to support high quality teaching of PHSE) offers a pre assessment activity for each unit covered. This allows teachers to identify what children already know, with the aim of building upon this and developing knowledge appropriate to children’s current understanding. The intention is then that children complete the same activity again at the end of the unit to show progression and identify where they are now at with regards to their understanding. This would then be used to pass on information to future teachers allowing them to see where gaps are and what has previously been understood by the children.
SCARF have also created succinct summative assessment sheets for the overview of the year. This allows teachers to track specific children’s learning as they progress through the scheme. Identifying specific gaps that may need to be recovered for all children, but equally gaps that may appear for smaller groups of children that could perhaps be managed through small group intervention or support of a classroom TA. The summative assessment sheets use the terminology ‘emerging’, ‘expected’, ‘exceeding’ where staff are able to comment on children’s progression towards specific succinct targets.
Where children are underachieving continually in PHSE lessons, support and input need to be provided. Children who are not developmentally inline for their chronological age will need to be supported to access lessons at an appropriate level for their stage of development. This support may come in the form of an adult there to assist them, for example for children with EHCP’s or activities being differentiated as would be expected in English and Maths lessons. It is imperative however that children are involved in conversations and given the same experiences as their peers to ensure they are been given every chance to succeed.